Immune System

Wow, this system is SO  complex. And life is just not the same when our Immune System is not working right. And, we because this system is complex, we need to pay attention to our bodies. We want to help our systems to renew, we want to strengthen our systems, which will help increase our longevity. Makes sense doesn't it. So, what CAN we DO?  Actually a lot of things.

From my research it appears that if we only use antibiodics when we really truly need them (try garlic first!), if we eat foods that DON"T have antibodics in them (have you checked out the meat/chicken that you are eating?), and if we help our gut by making sure it's working at optium efficiency, we have just strengthen our system, and increased our longevity!

On this page you will find a Brief Review of Our Immune System, an article on NUTRIENTS THAT SUPPORT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (what to take and why) and A Nutritional Approach to Immunity.


Brief Review of our Immune System:
SKIN:
The largest organ we have is our skin! It's the first layer of defense
. Since our skin is here to protect us, have you looked at what you are putting on your skin? Is your lotion and soap healthy or full of toxins? Do you know?

OPENINGS:
How things get into our body is the next level of defense - openings
. Like our  mouth, nose, any openings into our bodies.  Usually our openings will trap the bacteria, viruses, pollutants, checmicals, etc and then eliminate them by sneesing, coughting, runny nose, urine, etc.


MUCSUS:
Body fluids help to get rid of the invaders
- like tears protect our eyes, skin secretes oils and the hydrochloric acid in our stomachs netralizes stuff that we ingest (parasites, bacteria, etc.). Is our stomach system working? Are we taking anti acids, having lots of gas, etc? This defense may not be working so well, which will cause us more problems!

MORE:
Our bodies also use:
inflammation, scabs and antibodies to fight off infections and to  heal.

GUTS:
The Digestive Tract
In our digestive tract has it's own "army" to handle the "invadersl" Our lower GI tract has these immune "fighters" who "capture and destroy" the harmful bacteria and prevent them from entering the bloodstream where they could cause harm!



Resources for this article: "Why Do I Feel This Way" by C. Gaber, RHN and C. Day, RDC.
 


The Center for Disease Control has issued a strong warning to stop over-using antibiotics.  This push comes in the form of guidelines from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which now believes that the overuse of antibiotics is contributing to an alarming rise in the number of diseases that are impervious to drugs.



 NUTRIENTS THAT SUPPORT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Some Hints for Maximum Efficient Immune System

1.  Eat healthy foods ... like fresh vegetables, salads that are more than just iceberg lettuce, fresh fruits, healthy protein, whole grains (although some people have gluten sensitivities which weakens the immune system)

2.  Avoid foods that weaken the immune system especially sugar, alcohol, carb-y snacks, over-processed and packaged foods.  Stay on the outside of the grocery aisles where the fresh, unprocessed foods are.

3.  Avoid exposure to toxins … in our homes, food, air, water, cleaning and personal products that we use – toxic stress weakens immune system

4.  Stay active … play, run, exercise, yoga – exercise boosts immune response

5.  Get sleep … 8 hours of it – during sleep is when the body repairs and recharges

6.  And … Take supplements that help the body strengthen and rebuild the cells of the immune system

 

Scientifically Advanced Vita-Lea (with and w/out iron)

Provides a comprehensive balance of essential nutrients. Vita-Lea’s bioavailability has been proven through independent clinical research.  Contains gentler, better-tolerated forms of zinc and protein-bound trace minerals for easier digestion.

 

Vita-D3

Essential nutrient promotes immune system health, strong bones and teeth by increasing calcium absorption, supports heart health support, facilitates healthy cell development, among many D3 benefits for overall health and well-being. Depending on where we live, the time of year, our ancestry, and our lifestyle, our need varies throughout the year but most Americans need to boost their levels. 

 

Premium Garlic Complex

Two-way odor control with a gentle, temperature-controlled drying process and with a pleasant blend of spearmint and rosemary extracts. Historically, has been used for congestion, asthma, sinusitis and allergies, colds, flu and pneumonia, sore throat and bronchitis.  Has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and is effective against yeast infections (Candida).  Nature’s strongest natural antibiotic.

 

Optiflora

This advanced colon care system contains Acidophilus and Bifidus, essential friendly bacteria that ideally live in our lower intestines. 70% of the body’s immune cells are in the intestinal tract.  Research shows, however, that most adult Americans only retain about 15% of these microflora, rendering our bodies (and especially our immune systems) vulnerable to toxic build-up. The Optiflora system also includes the prebiotic FOS and inulin to provide nutrients that selectively feed the good microflora for rapid colonization.  It is the only product of its kind to guarantee delivery of live beneficial microflora to the intestines, due to its unique triple encapsulation that protects these essential bacteria (inner core) from the acidity of the stomach (outer layer), oxygen and moisture (middle layer) until released in the intestine.

 

Vita-C, 500 mg. Sustained Release

Antioxidant property protects the body against free radicals.  Boosts the immune system, infection fighter, natural antihistamine, increases the resistance to ligament and tendon injury. Vitamin C is depleted by stress such as infections, illness, fatigue, surgery, anxiety, pollution and extremes in temperature.  As we age, there is a greater need to regenerate collagen that requires more vitamin C.

 

Zinc

Zinc is clinically proven to help optimize immune function.  It promotes normal growth and development. There are over 200 reasons to add zinc to your diet – that’s the number of different enzymes in your body that depend on zinc. Their functions range from making genetic materials, DNA and RNA, to helping with the metabolism of fatty acids along with maintaining normal immune function.

 

NutriFeron

NutriFeron is a patented, clinically proven blend of immune strengthening plant extracts.  http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3295438/9275648   The formula for NutriFeron is proven by four published human clinical studies.  In a soon to be published study, shown to positively impact our body’s natural killer cells. (Natural killer (NK) cells are part of our first line of defense against cancer cells and virus-infected cells.)  NutriFeron was developed and extensively tested by immunologists in Japan. Contains an exclusive, proprietary blend of natural plant extracts from pumpkin seeds, safflower flowers, plantago seeds, and Japanese honeysuckle flower buds, which has been clinically proven to support and stimulate the natural immune response process at the cellular level. 

 

Supports and stimulates the immune system, by increasing the activity of macrophages and inducing natural Interferon production.  Optimizes immune response against environmental irritants and airborne substances.  Completely safe – no adverse reactions to these plant extracts ever recorded.

 

Defend & Resist Complex

Standardized extracts of four clinically proven immune-supporting ingredients:  Echinacea, Black Elderberry, Larch Tree, and Zinc.  Stimulates the body’s natural resistance and immune function.  Promotes production of white blood cells, enhances resistance to viral and bacterial infection, especially flu and herpes, reduces mucus.  Works best started at the onset of cold/flu symptoms.  Can be used effectively for up to 7 days at a time.

 

 (Other nutrients to consider)

Alfalfa

Recognized for centuries for its healing properties, alfalfa offers a wide range of nutrients: calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, chlorophyll, bioflavonoids, trace minerals, and vitamins.

 

CarotoMax and FlavoMax

Carotenoids are essential for healthy mucosal membranes in the digestive, respiratory and reproductive tracts reducing susceptibility to infection, allergies, bronchitis, asthma, ear infection and skin disorders.  Contains other naturally occurring Carotenoids such as alpha carotene and other types of beta-carotene.  Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants increase the power of the immune system to fight infection, are natural antihistamines, are antiviral and antibacterial because they interfere with the actual mechanism of some of these organisms, lower risk of many cancers including gastric cancer.

 

Vita-E 400 IU and Vita-E Complex

Anti-oxidant that protects against cell damage.  Helps to prevent heart disease, Parkinson’s; protects lungs from air pollution, protects cells from premature aging, helps cystic breast disease, improves circulation, promotes healing.  Our immune systems decline with age.  Vitamin E enhances immune responsiveness in the elderly. Shaklee’s Vita-E is in a natural d-alpha form and is more biologically active than synthetic vitamin E. Provides the full spectrum of tocopherols found in nature.

 

As an alternative to some of the individual vitamins/minerals above:  Vitalizer is a 30-Day Supply of 80 Nutrients (Includes Vita-Lea multi, CarotoMax-E-Omega, B+C Complex, and Optiflora Probiotic.)  If you are just starting a supplement program, you may find the daily bubble strips very handy. The 6 tablets in the daily strip represent the highest level of nutritional science on the market today. Vitalizer carries 12 patents and its effectiveness has been proven in 12 clinical studies. 

 

In addition ... Basic-G® Germicidal Cleaner

Cleans, disinfects, deodorizes in one step for kitchen, bathroom, pet area.  Kills over 40 bacteria, fungi, and viruses including feline leukemia and canine parvovirus.  In laboratory conditions using E Coli resistant bacteria that contaminate meats, Basic-G killed organism and continued to work three days after initial use.  Household bleaches lose effectiveness within one hour.  EPA registered.  For specific pathogens Basic G is effective against, see file: BasicG-Germicide_PathogensSheet (ask for a copy).

 

The Shaklee Difference

  • Although not required by FDA regulation, a prestigious Scientific Advisory Board formulates all Shaklee products after rigorous clinical research and review. 
  • Shaklee Corporation’s commitment to excellence is reflected in its continuing to invest more than $100 million in clinical research at some of the more respected universities in the country (Harvard, Yale, MIT, Georgetown, U of Texas, Stanford, U of California at Berkeley, etc.).
  •  80,000 quality tests are performed on the nutritional products alone and their ingredients every year.  This is particularly important in producing herbal products.  The proper plant genus and species must be used and grown with no pesticides or herbicides.  The active ingredients in each herb are measured to be sure the herb is fresh and properly harvested, dried and prepared to insure its safety and effectiveness. 
  • Shaklee Products are formulated at the Forrest C. Shaklee Research Center in Hayward, California.

Shaklee Products

¨       Always Safe … 350 tests on every single new ingredient to screen for heavy metals, pesticides, or any of hundreds of other harmful contaminants.

¨       Always Work … over 90 published clinical peer reviewed studies prove their effectiveness, including Landmark Study at Berkeley proving that people who took Shaklee supplements had markedly better nutrient levels in their blood and far less incidence of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other serious illnesses (Landmark Study, Published 2007).

¨ Always Green … first company in the world to offset all its greenhouse emissions, maker of first biodegradable cleaner Basic H, and the popular non-toxic environmentally safe cleaning products “Get Clean”.  The company partners with Nobel Laureate Wangari Maathai planting 1 million trees in Kenya and U.S.  Shaklee continues to join forces with people all over the world who care about the planet enough to create movements of change. Committed to making truly sustainable natural products that respect the earth.

 

Source: Lagoni Health Associates,

lagonihealth@comcast.net  Updated: 08.2010 (v.09.2009)  

 

 The above is offered for informational purposes  and is not  intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease.  

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For more information on the article below, please follow this link:  http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/FULL/Nutritional_Approach_to_Immunity.shtml



A Nutritional Approach to Immunity

 
   

 

From the September 1999 Nutrition Science News


by David Wolfson, N.D.

Supplements shore up defenses during cold and flu season

 

The human body is continually protecting itself from the outside world. To shield itself from harmful environmental stimuli, the body employs its cells, biochemicals, organs and tissues. The complex interaction of these physiological systems produces immunity. Some of these systems have dual roles: The digestive system, for example, not only extracts and absorbs nutrients from foods but also destroys pathogenic organisms that may be present in foods. Other immune system components are more focused: White blood cells are specifically designed to destroy invading organisms.

 

One of the immune system's more extraordinary features is its ability to respond to the environment. When a threat is encountered, the immune system can mount an attack specifically designed to neutralize it. This is demonstrated most clearly in the antigen-antibody interaction. Antigens are proteinlike substances that identify living matter, much like biochemical name tags. When a white blood cell encounters another living organism--a bacterium, virus or normal human cell--it checks the name tag. When the system is working properly, if the tag says anything other than "self," the white blood cell considers the organism a hostile invader. Other immune cells are alerted and information gleaned from the antigen is used to design antibodies precisely configured to destroy both the antigen and the organism that carried it into the body.

 

Defects in any of the components of the immune system can impair its ability to recognize and neutralize invading organisms and thus increase susceptibility to infectious disease.

 

How can immune systems be kept at peak operating efficiency? An important clue is contained in the work of Weston Price, D.D.S., a researcher who, almost 60 years ago, observed a high degree of immunity among native cultures he encountered as he traveled the world. Price described cultures free from tuberculosis (one of the most prevalent infections in his time), dental disease, cancer and arthritis in locations including Africa, the Andes Mountains, Melanesia and New Zealand. These highly resistant peoples invariably ate whole, unprocessed foods and were physically active. Price observed that when individuals from such cultures relocated to areas where refined and processed foods were prevalent, they began to contract infectious and degenerative diseases. Upon returning to their native villages their health and immune status recovered. [ ]

 

Modern research supports Price's observations. Many studies show that immune function depends on nutrients found primarily in whole, unprocessed foods. [ 2 ] Researchers have also confirmed that physical activity and a healthy emotional state are essential for proper immune function. [ 3,4 ]

 

A healthy diet and lifestyle may be the cornerstones of a strong immune system, but what specific measures can be taken when a person is faced with an immune challenge such as the annual cold and flu season?

Nutrients for Immune Support 

Fortunately, a wide variety of immune-enhancing nutritional and herbal supplements is available.

 

Co-Q10 is one nutrient that often goes unrecognized as an immune-system supporter. Immune cells divide more rapidly than most cells and are in constant need of repair and maintenance. All of this work requires energy, and Co-Q10 is a critical factor in energy production pathways. In both animal and human studies Co-Q10 has compensated for immune deficiencies caused by aging or disease. [ 5,6 ] One study showed Co-Q10 significantly improved immune function and reduced symptoms in a number of HIV-infected individuals. [ 7 ] Daily Co-Q10 doses range from 20 to 200 mg. I recommend 10 mg twice daily for maintenance, increasing to higher doses during an infection.

 

Vitamin A as retinol or beta-carotene is a recognized immune-supportive nutrient. Almost a dozen studies demonstrate vitamin A's ability to reduce the incidence and severity of infectious illnesses. [ 8,9 ] Vitamin A supports immunity by maintaining the integrity of the body's mucosal surfaces. Mucous membranes such as those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts act as natural barriers to pathogens. Vitamin A also improves antibody responses and increases white blood cell proliferation. Adding 10,000-15,000 IU per day of vitamin A, or 25,000 IU of mixed carotenoids, to a healthy diet can help boost immune response. Up to 100,000 IU per day can usually be taken safely on a short-term basis. [ 10 ]Pregnant women and people with liver conditions, however, should always consult a health care provider before supplementing with vitamin A. In its retinol form, vitamin A has the potential to cause birth defects and liver toxicity.

 

Vitamin C is the most widely known immune-stimulating nutrient. Numerous studies show that vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, works on several levels to support immune function. In addition to enhancing the activity of immune cells, vitamin C acts as a cofactor in the production of collagen, the principal protein found in all connective tissues. By helping maintain the strength and integrity of connective tissue structures, vitamin C keeps infections from spreading throughout the body. [ 11 ]

 

I recommend 1 g of vitamin C daily as a preventive measure. Customers should increase their dose at the first sign of a cold, flu or other illness but should not exceed 10 g daily unless they are advised to do so by a health care practitioner. [ 12,13 ]

 

Vitamin E is present in higher concentrations in immune cells than in any other cells of the body. Interestingly, white blood cells often use free radicals to help destroy pathogenic organisms. The high concentrations of antioxidant nutrients, including vitamin E, allow the white blood cells to use the destructive power of free radicals without being harmed. Studies show that people with lower serum levels of vitamin E are significantly more susceptible to infection than those with higher levels [ 13 ] and that supplemental vitamin E can improve immune responses in both sick and healthy individuals. [ 14,15 ]I recommend 200 400 IU daily and up to 800 IU at the first sign of infection. [ 13-15 ]

 

Zinc accelerates the growth of immune cells while inhibiting the replication of the cold-causing rhinoviruses. [ 16 ] Zinc also helps maintain the health of the thymus gland and improves the function of lymphocytes and phagocytic immune cells, all of which are vital to immune system function. [ 17,18 ] Clinical trials confirm zinc's usefulness in combating infectious disease. In one study, zinc gluconate lozenges were tested against placebo in a group of 100 patients with cold symptoms. Each zinc lozenge contained 13.3 mg of elemental zinc. Patients took one lozenge every two hours while awake. Those in the zinc group experienced significantly less coughing, headaches, nasal congestion, hoarseness and sore throats than the placebo group. Side effects were minimal--mostly harmless reactions to the taste of the lozenge. [ 19 ] These positive effects of zinc in adults have not been proven in children.

 

Zinc supplementation can range from 15 mg daily for prevention to 100 mg daily for acute infections. If a cold is accompanied by a sore throat, recommend zinc lozenges. These are usually more effective because they bring the zinc in direct contact with oral mucosa. One cautionary note: Taking high doses of any mineral long-term can cause other mineral imbalances and zinc is no exception. A zinc-copper imbalance can be particularly problematic--several studies suggest that high levels of zinc relative to copper may promote atherosclerosis and increase mortality due to coronary artery disease. [ 20 ]

 

Probiotic microorganisms, although technically not nutrients, are nonetheless important to immune function. Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria species have been shown to increase numbers of circulating lymphocytes, [ 21 ] stimulate phagocytic activity of white blood cells, [ 22 ] elevate antibody responses [ 23 ] and increase production of immune-modulating chemicals such as gamma interferon. [ 24 ] I recommend probiotic products that also contain a prebiotic such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS). FOS are carbohydrates that support the growth of probiotic organisms in the gastrointestinal tract. A recent study in Lancet showed that oligosaccharide molecules can bind to pathogenic microbes, thereby preventing their attachment to host cells. [ 25 ] For immune support, direct your customers to refrigerated probiotic products that contain 3 billion to 4 billion organisms per gram. For maintenance I recommend 1 g either several times a week or daily. For therapeutic purposes, increase the dose to 1 g three times daily.

 

Herbs for Immune Support 

Herbal medicines have been used throughout history to enhance human resistance to disease. Modern herb research and new understanding of the immune system have explained many mechanisms by which these herbs work.

 

Echinacea (Echinacea spp.), one of the most widely known immune-supporting herbs, exerts some direct antimicrobial action but primarily boosts immune-cell activity and prevents bacterial enzymes from breaking down the body's tissues. [26,27 ] Clinical trial results are mixed, some showing little or no activity, [ 28 ] others demonstrating a marked ability to reduce cold symptoms. [ 29 ] (For more on echinacea, see "Doctor's Insight" on page 411.)

Prescription for Wellness

Dr. Wolfson recommends the following natural immune enhancers to ready your customers for the cold and flu season.

Co-Q10 10 mg twice daily; 50-100 mg twice daily during illness

Probiotics with FOS 4 billion organisms/day; 4 billion organisms three times/day during illness

Vitamin A 10,000-15,000 IU/day (or 25,000 IU mixed carotenoids); 100,000 IU/day during short-term illness*

Vitamin C 1 g/day; up to 10 g/day during illness

Vitamin E 200-400 IU/day; 800 IU during illness

Zinc 15 mg/day; 100 mg/day during illness, lozenges for sore throats

 

*Pregnant women and people with liver conditions should always con- sult their health care provider before supplementing with vitamin A.

At the first signs of a cold or flu, several 1-mL droppers of echinacea tincture taken every two to three hours may help abort the illness. During the course of an infection, a similar dose can be taken at less frequent intervals. Standardized echinacea formulations should be taken according to package directions.

 

Berberine-containing herbs have long been used for their antibiotic action and toning effects on the respiratory tract. Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium) all contain the antimicrobial phytochemical berberine.

 

Studies confirm berberine's antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and parasitic species. [ 27 ] In one study berberine was shown to block streptococci from adhering to epithelial cells, the type of cell found lining the respiratory passages. [ 30 ] This suggests berberine-containing herbs may be particularly useful in strep infections. Other studies have shown the compound has a protective effect on thymus gland cells [ 31 ] and supports other immune cells. [32 ] Any of the berberine-containing herbs can be taken on their own, or with echinacea and other immune-supportive herbs. All berberine-containing herbs should be avoided during pregnancy because they may cause premature uterine contractions.

 

Garlic (Allium sativum) has more lore surrounding its ability to fight illness than any other herb. In vitro and animal testing seem to support garlic's use as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, [ 33,34 ] but there are few human clinical trials. Epidemiological evidence suggests garlic may reduce the incidence of certain types of cancer, [ 35 ] but whether this is the result of improved immune function is not clear. It seems prudent to include garlic in the diet on a regular basis as a preventive measure and to increase its consumption, either fresh or in extract form, during cold and flu season.

 

Other herbs are also reported to have either antimicrobial or immune-enhancing effects. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and Lomatium (Lomatium dissectum) seem particularly suited for treating viral infections. All three have demonstrated virucidal activity in vitro. [ 36,37 ] Licorice has also been shown to increase the activity of macrophages and natural killer cells--critical elements of the immune system. [ 38 ]People with high blood pressure, however, should consult a health care practitioner before using licorice. Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), ginseng (Panax ginseng), and several species of mushroom including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), reishi (Ganoderma ludidum) and maitake (Grifolia frondosa) have been used historically to increase resistance. Astragalus enhances T cell function. [ 39 ] Panax ginseng has been shown to increase numbers and activity of lymphocytes, neutrophils and T cells. [ 40 ] And shiitake, reishi and maitake mushrooms all contain polysaccharide and protein complexes that stimulate immune cells and their ability to produce antimicrobial substances. [ 41 ] All of these medicinal plants can be taken alone or in combination with other immune-supportive supplements.

 

Immune health is ultimately our last defense against disease-causing organisms. The antibiotics upon which we have grown so dependent do nothing to support our own resistance and in fact have created antibiotic-resistant organisms. If we are to maintain our ability to ward off harmful environmental organisms we must shift our focus from reliance on drugs to enhancing our innate immunity.

David Wolfson, N.D., is a naturopathic physician, nutrition educator, and writer as well as a consultant to the natural products industry.

REFERENCES

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2. Beisel W. Nutrition and immune function: overview. J Nutr 1996;126:2611S-5S.

3. Shephard RJ, et al. Exercise, aging and immune function. Int J Sports Med 1995;16(1):1-6.

4. Leserman J, et al. Severe stress, depressive symptoms, and changes in lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: a 2-year follow-up study. Arch Gen Psych 1997;54:279-85.

5. Tanner HA. Energy transformations in the biosynthesis of the immune system: their relevance to the progression and treatment of AIDS. Medical Hypotheses 1992;38:315-21.

6. Bliznakov EG. Immunological senescence in mice and its reversal by coenzyme Q10. Mech Aging Devel 1978;7:189-97.

7. Folkers K, et al. Biochemical deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in HIV-infection and exploratory treatment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988;153(2):888-96.

8. Semba RD. Vitamin A, immunity and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:489-99.

9. Fawzi WW, et al. Dietary vitamin A intake and the risk of diarrhea and respiratory infection among Sudanese children. J Nutr 1995;125:1211-21.

10. Meyers G, et al. Safety of antioxidant vitamins. Arch Int Med 1996;156:925-33.

11.Moser U, Bendich A. Vitamin C. In: Machlin LJ, editor. Handbook of vitamins, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1990.

12. Hemila H. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Internat J Sports Med 1996;17(5):379-83.

13. Machlin LJ. Vitamin E. In: Machlin LJ, editor. Handbook of vitamins, 2d ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1990.

14. Blaim A, et al. The effect of vitamin E treatment on the incidence of OKT+4 lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of children with chronic respiratory tract infections. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1987;35(2):207-10.

15. Meydani SN, et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on immune responsiveness of the aged. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989;570:283-90.

16. Eby GA. Zinc lozenges as cure for common colds. Ann Pharmacother 1996;30:1336-8.

17. Morley JE. Nutritional modulation of behavior and immunocompetence. Nutr Rev 1994;52(8):S6-S8.

18. Peretz A, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on the phagocytic functions of polymorphonuclears in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. J Trace Elements, Electrolytes and Health and Dis 1994;8:189-94.

19. Mossad SB, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1996 Jul 15;125(2):81-8.

20. Klevay LM. Interactions of copper and zinc in cardiovascular disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 1980;355:140-51.

21. De Simone C, et al. Effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on gut mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Immunopharmacol and Immunotoxicol 1992;14(1-2):331-40.

22. Moineau S, et al. Effect of feeding fermented milks on the pulmonary macrophage activity in mice. Milchwissenschaft 1991;46(a):551-4.

23. Isolauri E, et al. Improved immunogenicity of oral Dx RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Vaccine 1995;13(3):310-2.

24. De Simone C, et al. The role of probiotics in modulation of the immune system in man and in animals. Int J Immunother 1993;1X(1):23-8.

25. Zopf D, et al. Oligosaccharide anti-infective agents. Lancet 1996;347:1017-21.

26. See DM, et al. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacol 1997;35(3):229-35.

27. Murray M. The healing power of herbs: revised and expanded, 2d ed. Rocklin (CA):Prima Publishing; 1995. p 92-107.

28. Melchart D, et al. Echinacea root extracts for the prevention 
of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, 
placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Arch Fam Med 1998;7(6):541-5.

29. Braunig B, et al. Echinacea purpurea radix for strengthening the immune response in flulike infections. Z Phytother 1992;13:7-13.

30. Sun D, et al. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32(9):1370-4.

31. Miura N, et al. Inhibition of thymocyte apoptosis by berberine. Biochem Pharmacol 1997;53(9):1315-22.

32. Kumazawa Y, et al. Activation of peritoneal macrophages by berberine-type alkaloids in terms of induction of cytostatic activity. Int J Immunopharmacol 1984;6(6):587-92.

33. Elnima EL, et al. The antimicrobial activity of garlic and onion extracts. Pharmazie 1983;38(11):747-8.

34. Nagai K. Experimental studies on the preventive effect of garlic extract against infection with influenza virus. Jpn J Infect Dis 1973;47:321.

35. Buiatti E, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 1989;44(4):611-6.

36. McCutcheon AR, et al. Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;49(2):101-10.

37. Lavie G, et al. Hypericin as an inactivator of infectious viruses in blood components. Transfusion 1995;35(5):392-400.

38. Yang G, et al. Immunopotentiating effect of traditional Chinese drugs--ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. Proc Chin Acad Med Sci, Peking Union Med Coll 1990;5(4):188-93.

39. Yoshida Y, et al. Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs. Int J Immunopharm 1997;19(7):359.

40. Scaglione F, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16:537-42.

41. Wasser SP, et al. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol 1999;19(1):65-96.


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